Tajikistan gained independence from the former Soviet Union in 1991, and is ruled by a presidential system. More than 7 million people belonging to over 80 nationalities and ethnic groups reside in Tajikistan. 26.3 percent of the total population consists of urban dwellers. Tajikistan comprises of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast, Sughd Oblast, Khatlon Oblast and 11 Districts of Republican Subordination. Tajikistan has borders to Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, China and Afghanistan and is considered the poorest country in Europe and the CIS Region: 46.7 percent of the population in 2012 was deemed poor (Human Development Report 2013).
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